How to do carbon 14 dating problems for men
Creationists such as Cook claim that cosmic radiation is now forming C in the atmosphere about one and one-third times faster than it is decaying. But, in spite of Barnes, paleomagnetism on the sea floor conclusively proves that the magnetic field of the earth oscillates in waves and even reverses itself on occasion. So, in the end, external evidence reconciles with and often confirms even controversial C dates.
Thus, a freshly killed mussel has far less C than a freshly killed something else, which is why the C dating method makes freshwater mussels seem older than they really are. Barnes has claimed that the earth's magnetic field is decaying exponentially with a half-life of fourteen hundred years. It does discredit the C dating of freshwater mussels, but that's about all. It has not been decaying exponentially as Barnes maintains.
Thus it can be demonstrated that the magnetic field of the earth has reversed itself dozens of times throughout earth history. Mass spectroscopy, like any man-made measurement, is not perfect. Kieth and Anderson radiocarbon-dated the shell of a living freshwater mussel and obtained an age of over two thousand years.
The older an organism's remains are, the less beta radiation it emits because its C is steadily dwindling at a predictable rate. Living organisms are constantly incorporating this C into their bodies along with other carbon isotopes.
This would mean that eighty-two hundred years worth of tree rings had to form in five thousand years, which would mean that one-third of all the bristlecone pine rings would have to be extra rings. So, creationists who complain about double rings in their attempts to disprove C dating are actually grasping at straws. Newer, more accurate techniques use mass spectroscopy. Most of the tree-ring sequence is based on the bristlecone pine. If we extrapolate backwards in time with the proper equations, we find that the earlier the historical period, the less C the atmosphere had.
Yes, Cook is right that C is forming today faster than it's decaying. Of course, some species of tree tend to produce two or more growth rings per year. Kieth and Anderson show considerable evidence that the mussels acquired much of their carbon from the limestone of the waters they lived in and from some very old humus as well. Other species of trees corroborate the work that Ferguson did with bristlecone pines. Yet, instead of seriously attempting to rebut them with up-to-date evidence, Barnes merely quoted the old guesses of authors who wrote before the facts were known.
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon Dating
Cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are constantly converting the isotope nitrogen N into carbon C or radiocarbon. They have their work cut out for them, however, because radiocarbon C dating is one of the most reliable of all the radiometric dating methods. Like Cook, Barnes looks at only part of the evidence.
So, if we measure the rate of beta decay in an organic sample, we can calculate how old the sample is. It is nigh impossible to measure exactly zero. By either mechanism, this is essentially internal contamination. Natural diamonds are not pure carbon.
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