Symbiotic Relationships Between Microbe and Host

Lactobacillus host-microbe relationships dating

Some parasitic bacteria live as normal flora of humans while waiting for an opportunity to cause disease. Typically the host defense mechanisms are divided into two groups. It grows in biofilms on the surface of teeth plague where it consumes sugar and converts it to lactic acid. Nose The human nose is home to the infamous Gram positive bacterium staphylococcus aurous, best known for its role in hospitals where it is a major cause of surgical wound and systemic infection.

In the colon, the show rate of food movement, gives bacteria in the colon time to reproduce so that they reach very high concentration bacteria per ml. Compared to the stomach, the small intestine is a relatively hospitable environment. There are many microbes that are parasitic to humans, including fungi, protozoans, bacteria and viruses. In human, some of the normal bacterial flora e.

It grows in biofilmsNose The human

The colon is a holding tank for bacteria that participate in the end stages of food digestion. The human body provided may unique environments for different bacterial communities to live. Mouth different kinds of bacteria thrive on mucus and food remnants in the mouth. Normal flora are the microbes that live in and on the human body and are beneficial or neural in their effect on the host.

On the other hand, areas of the body such as the brain, the circulatory system and lungs are intended to remain sterile microbe free. This makes it difficult for bacteria to colonize, the small intestine because they get washed out very quickly. Another prominent member of the skin flora is staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition H pylori produce an enzyme called urease to convert urea produced by the stomach into ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Some parasitic bacteria live

It is, however, an increasing challenge as drug resistance accumulates and accelerates, even as the drugs for combating infections are reduced in power and number. In such cases, S epidemics form antibiotic resistance biofilms along the catheter and enter the blood stream causing systemic infection that can be fatal.

There is also evidence that E coli within the colon produce vitamin K, which the human body requires for the process of blood clothing. An association between organisms in which one benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed. The host defenses may be of such a degree that infection can be prevented entirely, or if infection does occur, the defenses may stop the process before disease is apparent. As a result the concentration of bacteria in the small intestine remains relatively low and human enzymes carry out most of the digestion processes.

Typically the host defense mechanisms

This is an environment that prevents the growth of many microorganisms, but a few have adapted to life on our skin. In these cases microbial communities may even aid in digestion or synthesize nutrient for the host. One example of a parasitic bacteria would be the acidophile Helicobacter pylori, which can cause infection in the lining of the stomach that often results in peptic ulcers.

There are actually three types of symbiosis, with the interactions between organisms ranging from win-win to win-lose. Commensalism Commensalistic relationships occur when one organism benefits while the other is not much effected for better or worse.

Host-Microbe Relationships