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In this sense, glasnost lifted the lid from the barrel of forbidden, banned, and suppressed art. Magnitizdat implied the creation of an altogether more individualized product that was spread through a personal and private distribution system. Each chapter begins with the cultural history of the Soviet era to provide a context for developments in the s and s, before exploring each phenomenon in more depth.
After Brezhnev When Gorbachev took up office in he replaced, within a year, most of the hardliners in key positions in the cultural sector. In the late s, the stagnation led to a dearth of activity in Soviet cultural life. New theaters opened, including the Sovremennik and Taganka. Consequently, the avantgarde fell out of favor with the Communist leadership, which was concerned with the use of art to reach the masses.
At the same time, the Brezhnev years were a period of relative material growth and economic stability. As the number of television sets in households was increasing, the pop stars Mark Bernes and Iosif Kobzon appeared on television with their patriotic and elegiac songs, accompanied by Soviet bands.
The term mass culture remained synonymous with commercial and bourgeois throughout the Soviet period. In cinema a move occurred away from the glorification of collective Soviet heroism toward an individual heroism. Thus, the bard Vladimir Vysotsky is part of dissident popular culture, as is the Taganka Theater. The cabaret actor Arkadi Raikin, whose mockery of the system was combined with a high level of compassion for human flaws, moved from Leningrad to Moscow in and frequently appeared on television. In cinema, a directive was issued to educate and enlighten the masses through film.
The New Russia This book covers the media, music, performing and visual arts, sports, religious tradition, nice things to say to a girl you are dating and consumer culture in the New Russia. Globalization fully hit the New Russia and exposed it to all the trash and commercial culture that people had known only through negative propaganda.
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The Thaw had a number of positive effects on cultural life. The hero Chapayev can explain his complex military strategy with the help of potatoes. Third, new theaters were founded, such as the Sovremennik Contemporary in Moscow under Oleg Yefremov. Cranes was only tenth in the box-office charts at the time of its release, however, thus not the most popular film of its year. His works were later serialized for television and have become part of Russian popular culture in the form of anecdotes.
Whereas the s had been governed by clampdown, censorship, and bans, the s saw deportations, exile, and house arrest. Tovstonogov made ample use of cinematic devices, such as a disembodied voice reading texts or assuming a narrator function.
Popular Culture, Sex and Society since Gorbachev, ed. The official and politically correct culture was, as it were, for the masses. It is worth noting that critical attention and international recognition have often focused on dissident popular culture.
The Thaw also had a reverse side, however, that reflected the struggle within the party between hardliners and reformers. Avant-garde artists may have actively supported the Revolution in the s, but connection to the masses was not that straightforward. In the Soviet era the primary aim of television was the education of the people and their socialization. The divide between high and low, popular and art-house, intellectual and consumer, is often blurred in the New Russia. His plays became the main source for the repertoire of Anatoli Efros and Oleg Yefremov.
Culture at least official, highbrow culture had always been focused on the text, associating the writer with a prophet who provides moral guidance and reveals the absolute truth in his text. The Revolution had an enormous impact on cultural life in general, and on theater and cinema in particular, as a potential tool for agitation among the masses and the propagation of socialist ideas. Yulian Semyonov emerged as one of the most popular writers of the period, creating the hero-figure Stirlitz, a Soviet spy in Nazi Germany. Estrada, or pop music, emulated Western styles, setting trivial lyrics to fine tunes. His concern rested with the universal rather than with explicit social criticism.
Products were in supply, jobs available, pensions paid, accommodation improving, transport systems expanding. Tovstonogov never was a controversial figure.
Stalin simplified the cultural discourse to make it accessible to the masses and used those tools that promised mass appeal as packaging for simple tales. Petersburg before the Revolution, instantly declared that he would dedicate his art to socialism. The popularity of certain novels, songs, films, television, or radio programs was directly related to the taboo themes they touched upon and the new areas they opened up for investigation.
This sudden release swept to the surface a whole new culture. The popular films of the s all relied on a simple narrative and conventional style, with a linear plot, reducing complex issues to a level that could be understood by the masses. His encouragement very quickly translated into action.
Berezovsky sought political asylum in the United Kingdom, and Gusinsky, an Israeli citizen, took up residence in Spain but was repeatedly arrested and threatened with extradition. Foreign film imports were stopped, and the audience was fed a solid Soviet diet. Consequently, mass culture contained elements of the official which was kitsch because it was official and of the underground culture which was exotic because forbidden. Whereas previously the leveling of culture had taken place within the Soviet Union, the new consumer culture leveled Russian culture with Western culture.
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